Bayham Winter Operations Standard
This document is based on normal winter weather conditions, reliability and availability of resources both human and physical. The Municipality does not guarantee a level of service under abnormal or extreme winter conditions nor in the event of a work stoppage.
It is acknowledged that conditions may occur which temporarily prevent achieving levels assigned. In such cases, efforts will be made to keep roads open, consistent with available resources.
This document is designed to utilize plain language to describe the Municipality of Bayham Winter Operations Plan. If there is a conflict between a provision in this document and a provision of Ontario Regulation 239/02, the provisions of Ontario Regulation 239/02 shall apply.
The Municipality of Bayham Winter Operations Plan is meant to be dynamic, to allow the municipality to evaluate and phase-in any changes, new approaches and technologies in winter maintenance activities in a fiscally sound manner. At the same time, any modifications to municipal winter maintenance activities must ensure that roadway safety is not compromised.
As specified in the Code of Practice for the Environmental Management of Road Salts, the Winter Operations Plan for the Corporation of the Municipality of Bayham was endorsed by Council on December 17, 2015
2.3 Highway includes a common and public highway, street, avenue, parkway, driveway, square, place, bridge, viaduct or trestle, any part of which is intended for or used by the general public for the passage of vehicles and includes the area between the lateral property lines thereof.
2.4 Paved Road means a road with an asphalt surface, concrete surface, composite pavement, or Portland cement surface.
2.5 Pre-treat means the application of liquids (calcium chloride, sodium chloride, etc.) to dry sand or salt prior to being loaded for storage or applied to the road surface.
2.6 Pre-wetting means the application of liquids (calcium chloride, sodium chloride, etc) at the spinner of the truck just prior to application to the road surface.
2.7 Surface Treated Road means a road with bituminous surface treatment comprised of one or two applications of asphalt emulsion and stone chips over a gravel road.
2.8 Unpaved Road means a road with a gravel or sand surface.
2.9 Winter Event means a weather condition affecting roads such as snowfall, wind-blown snow, freezing rain, frost, black ice, etc. to which a winter event response is required.
2.10 Winter Event Response means a series of winter control activities performed in response to a winter event.
2.11 Continuous Winter Event Response means a response to a winter event with full deployment of manpower and equipment that plow/salt/sand the entire system.
2.12 Spot Winter Event Response means a response to a winter event with only a part deployment of manpower and equipment or with full deployment to only part of the system
2.13 Winter Event Response Hours means the total number of person-hours per year (plowing, salting/sanding, winging back, etc.) to respond to winter events.
Winter Maintenance Program
The major activities related to winter maintenance are:
- snow plowing
- salt/sand application
- salt/sand storage
- snow removal
- sidewalk plowing
The Corporation of the Municipality of Bayham is responsible for winter maintenance on:
|Paved Roads||264 Lane KM|
|Surface Treated Roads||210 Lane KM|
|Unpaved Roads||123 Lane KM|
For the purposes of this winter operations plan, the highways under the jurisdiction of the Corporation of the Municipality of Bayham have been classified (Class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) as per the following Table 2 which is based on the Classification of Highways table included in Ontario Regulation 239/02.
Average Annual Daily Traffic
(number of motor vehicles)
Posted or Statutory Speed Limit
(kilometres per hour)
|15,000 or more||1||1||1||2||2||2||2|
|12,000 - 14,999||1||1||1||2||2||3||3|
|10,000 - 11,999||1||1||2||2||3||3||3|
|8,000 - 9,999||1||1||2||3||3||3||3|
|6,000 - 7,999||1||2||2||3||3||3||3|
|5,000 - 5,999||1||2||2||3||3||3||3|
|4,000 - 4,999||1||2||3||3||3||3||4|
|3,000 - 3,999||1||2||3||3||3||4||4|
|2,000 - 2,999||1||2||3||3||4||4||4|
|1,000 - 1,999||1||3||3||3||4||4||5|
|500 - 999||1||3||4||4||5||5||5|
|200 - 499||1||3||4||5||5||5||5|
|50 - 199||1||3||4||5||5||5||5|
|0 - 49||1||3||6||6||6||6||6|
For the purposes of Table 2, the average annual daily traffic on a highway or part of a highway under the jurisdiction of the Corporation of the Municipality of Bayham shall be determined by:
Table 3 summarizes the road system in the Municipality of Bayham as follows:
|Paved Lane/KM||Surface Treated/KM||Unpaved Lane/KM|
Level of Service
From October 1 to April 30, the minimum standard is to monitor the weather, both current and forecast to occur in the next 24 hours, once every shift or three times per calendar day, whichever is more frequent, at intervals determined by the municipality.
From May 1 to September 30, the minimum standard is to monitor the weather, both current and forecast to occur in the next 24 hours, once per calendar day.
In order to determine an effective winter event response and allocate the appropriate resources the Corporation of the Municipality of Bayham supplements road patrol information with weather information from various sources which includes:
6.2 Snow Accumulation
The minimum standard for addressing snow accumulation is, after becoming aware of the fact that the snow accumulation on a roadway is greater than the depth set out in the Table 4, to deploy resources as soon as practicable to address the snow accumulation, to provide a minimum lane width of the lesser of three metres for each lane or the actual lane width, or on a Class 4 or Class 5 Highway with two lanes, to provide a total width of at least five metres.
If the depth of snow accumulation on a roadway is less than or equal to the depth set out in the Table 4, the roadway is deemed to be in a state of repair with respect to snow accumulation.
For the purposes of this section, the depth of snow accumulation on a roadway may be determined by a municipal employee, agent or contractor, whose duties or responsibilities include one or more of the following:
The depth of snow accumulation on a roadway may be determined by:
|Class of Highway||Depth||Time|
|1||2.5 cm||4 Hrs|
|2||5 cm||6 Hrs|
|3||8 cm||12 Hrs|
|4||8 cm||16 Hrs|
|5||10 cm||24 Hrs|
6.3 Ice Formation
The minimum standard for the prevention of ice formation on roadways is doing the following in the 24-hour period preceding an alleged formation of ice on a roadway:
If the municipality determines, as a result of its activities that there is a substantial probability of ice forming on a roadway, the Municipality may treat the roadway to prevent ice formation within the time set out in the Table 5, starting from the time that the municipality determines is the appropriate time to deploy resources for that purpose.
If the municipality meets the minimum standard set out Section 6.3 and, despite such compliance, ice forms on a roadway, the roadway is deemed to be in a state of repair until the earlier of, the time that the municipality becomes aware of the fact that the roadway is icy; or the applicable time set out in the Table 5 for treating the roadway to prevent ice formation expires.
The minimum standard for treating icy roadways after the municipality becomes aware of the fact that a roadway is icy is to treat the icy roadway within the time set out in the Table 5, and an icy roadway is deemed to be in a state of repair until the applicable time set out in the Table 5 for treating the icy roadway expires.
For the purposes of this section, treating a roadway means applying material to the roadway, including but not limited to, salt, sand or any combination of salt and sand.
|Class of Highway||Time|
6.4 Public Information
Levels of Service
The Municipality of Bayham has developed carefully planned levels of winter road service to combat the diverse winter weather conditions. A combination of Municipally-owned vehicles and contracted units provide effective snow plowing services to Elgin County and Municipality of Bayham roads through the highway priority route system.
This system assigns priority to all County Roads with the highest traffic in the Municipality. To ensure the safety of drivers and pedestrians, these County Roads routes are serviced on a priority basis. Bayham Roads are attended to regularly, but less often than Elgin County Roads. Local Hamlet Roads and select sidewalks are maintained by Contractors under Agreements with the Municipality of Bayham.
Winter Operations Priority Index
1) Elgin County Roads
2) Municipality of Bayham Rural Roads
a. See Appendix ‘B’
3) Municipality of Bayham Local Hamlet Roads & Select Sidewalks
6.5 Residents Information
Winter Parking Restrictions
As per the Municipality of Bayham Traffic By-law, parking is not permitted on any Municipal streets from 3:00am–5:00am. This ensures the Municipality can completely clear streets of snow and that emergency vehicles can get down the street.
Please ensure that children do not play where snow is piled at the side of the road or in the middle of courts where municipal equipment operators may not see them.
Piling snow to the right side of the driveway can help reduce the amount of snow pushed back into the driveway. Standing in the driveway and looking at the street determines the right side.
Clearing Snow on Private Property
The Municipality devotes a great deal of resources to keep the streets and select sidewalks clear of snow and ice. Residents often deposit snow and ice from their property onto the street or sidewalk not realizing that this contravenes municipal regulations, contributes to unsafe driving and walking conditions and increases the cost of providing winter road maintenance.
When property owners are clearing snow from private driveways, please keep this snow on your property. Your efforts in helping the Municipality make winter driving and walking safe for everyone is appreciated.
The Municipality of Bayham has approximately 118 fire hydrants that need to be cleared of snow fall. The Municipality works hard to keep hydrants clear and available for emergencies, however with heavy snow falls, this can be challenging. Residents are asked to assist by keeping fire hydrants on their properties clear of snow. Hydrants should have a clearing of one metre (3 ft.) all around and there should be a clear path to the street to ensure firefighters can readily access them. A hydrant can help save lives and property in your community, if you see a hydrant that’s buried this winter, please do the neighbourly thing and dig it out.
Damage to Sod
Sidewalk plowing presents many challenges. It is difficult to tell exactly where the edge of the sidewalk is and when the ground is not frozen some sod damage may occur. Damage to Municipal sod, pavement and municipally owned trees will be repaired in the spring.
Contact the Municipal Office when you notice damage and your address will be added to a list for repair when materials are available.
To facilitate the removal of snow from sidewalks and to prevent damage to private property, residents are required not to place cars, fences, posts, hedges, shrubs, driveway curbs or other obstructions on the road allowance. The Municipality will not be responsible for damage to items placed on Municipal property by property owners.
The Municipality will re-install mailboxes damaged as a result of maintenance activities of an appropriate standard in an appropriate location.
Limitations & Exclusions
Timing of Installation
i. The damaged mailbox will be replaced as soon as weather and manpower permit, at the sole, absolute and unfettered discretion of the Road Operations Supervisor. Completion of Winter Control Services on the roadway is a priority.
Roadside Snow Removal
Roadside snow removal operations are only completed within the defined urban communities in the downtown cores of Straffordville, Vienna, and Port Burwell. Roadside snow removal operations are undertaken when the available snow storage capacity on street will no longer accommodate further snow accumulations. The purpose of snow removal operations is not necessarily for pedestrian convenience but for road safety.
If sufficient storage is lacking along roadway corridors and sight lines are impeded, snow removal may be scheduled at the earliest opportunity as per the following standards.
Assistance to Private Property Owners
Under no circumstances will a municipal employee be permitted to use municipal equipment to push, pull or tow a stranded private vehicle from a roadway or parking lot. The employee, if a hazard exists, shall use the two way radio to notify dispatch of the impending danger.
Winter Operations - Frequently Asked Questions
1. What happens when it starts to snow?
The Municipality of Bayham subscribes to an advanced weather forecasting service. Depending upon the timing and nature of the pending storm, staff are brought in to commence winter maintenance activities. Once the storm starts, or is completed, municipal equipment is sent out on designated routes to apply materials as necessary.
2. Why do I never see a municipal equipment when it snows?
It all depends upon where you live. The Municipality's main routes are Elgin County Roads. Depending upon the time of day, traffic volumes and snowfall amounts, the average routes can take varying hours to complete one pass. The municipal equipment will continue back over these routes until the storm has stopped and these roads are clear of snow and ice.
3. Why does the plow not remove all of the snow from my road?
The plows are designed to ride on "guides" (shoes) that raise the blade approximately 13 millimetres (0.5 inches) from the surface of the roadway. This is done to prevent damage to both the vehicle and infrastructure from raised manholes, catch basins or water valves. Once the street has been plowed and sanded, the interaction of the material and vehicular traffic is required to melt the remaining snow cover. Streets with low traffic volumes will therefore remain snow covered longer.
4. Why do the plows always push snow into my driveway?
For a resident this can be quite annoying, but unfortunately it cannot be helped. The snow must be removed from the travelled portion of the road. When the Municipality receives a heavy snowfall, if possible, do not shovel your driveway until after the plow has gone by. If you must shovel do not throw the snow out onto the roadway as you may create a hazard for another vehicle, and if an accident were to occur you might be held liable.
Winter Maintenance Season
8.1 Prior to the Winter Season
Prior to the Winter Season the Municipality will:
8.2 One Month Prior to the Winter Season
One month prior to the winter season the Corporation of the Municipality of Bayham will:
8.3 At the Start of the Winter Season
At the start of the winter season the Municipality of Bayham will:
10.1 Winter Materials Used Annually
|Material||5 Year Average|
|Rock Salt (NaCl)||1200 tonnes|
|Sand and Salt Mix*||3000 tonnes|
|Salt Brine (NaCl)||60000 litres|
* Percentage of salt in sand/salt mix by weight 10%
The municipality provides winter maintenance services from the patrol yard listed below. The patrol yard has a front end loader capable of loading the winter maintenance fleet with sand or salt.
Municipality of Bayham Public Works Yard
8354 Plank Rd
Equipment Storage Details: Nine bay pre-engineered steel building with a partially paved lot There is enough room in the bays to store 4 tandems, a loader, a grader, and the vac trailer. During winter months most of the equipment is stored indoors and seasonal equipment such as road side grass cutters are stored at a different facility.
Material Storage Details: All granular road construction material is stored outside. Salt and sand is stored within the storage dome.
All winter maintenance vehicles are equipped with two way communications (radios, cell phone, etc.). Municipal staff is responsible for reporting changing winter weather and/or road conditions as the changes are observed.
Spectrum Communications provides a call centre which serves as the main hub for in/outgoing calls from staff, emergency services and the general public.
The Call Center: Can be reached by calling 519-866-5521and is manned by Spectrum Communications outside normal business hours.
The Municipality of Bayham communicates important information to the public via the municipal website www.bayham.on.ca
Operational decisions will be made by the Road Operations Supervisor Ed Bradfield or designate with the aid of available forecasting, level of Service policy, patrolling etc. However, it should be emphasized that decisions will be subjective and external input, whether in this plan or elsewhere, merely acts as an aid in determining if a call out of staff and equipment by the Road Operations Supervisor.
Decommissioning Winter Operations
Current Winter Operations Trainings:
- Equipment Circle Check
- Equipment Calibration Record Keeping
- Health & Safety
- Winter Operations
Staff, or the on-board data collection system, is responsible for keeping the following records:
- CVOR Time Card
- Materials Used
- Route Plowed
- Winter Patrol Diary
- Weather/RWIS Information
- Equipment Calibration Records
Monitoring and Updating
The current winter maintenance policies, practices and procedures form the baseline or benchmark upon which improvements can be made to improve winter operations and/or the use and management of road salt in the future.
The Corporation of the Municipality of Bayham plans to undertake continual improvements to ensure the most efficient and effective winter operations.
At the end of the winter season a meeting to review winter operations will be held with all winter operations staff to itemize all issues that arose during the winter season and discuss how these issues may be resolved.
Prior to the start of the next winter season and with sufficient lead time to implement any changes, the Corporation of the Municipality of Bayham will train staff on the changes to equipment and/or winter maintenance policies, practices, and procedures.
Year over year performance measures will be used to determine whether or not the objectives of the Municipality of Bayham Winter Operations Plan and/or winter maintenance policies, practices, and procedures have been met and to identify areas for improvement.